Sources for mobility scores

Gill, T.K., Shanahan, E.M., Tucker, G.R. et al. Shoulder range of movement in the general population: age and gender stratified normative data using a community-based cohort.BMC Musculoskelet Disord 21, 676 (2020).

Sources for recommended exercises

Pinto RS, Gomes N, Radaelli R, Botton CE, Brown LE, Bottaro M. Effect of range of motion on muscle strength and thickness. J Strength Cond Res. 2012 Aug;26(8):2140-5. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31823a3b15. PMID: 22027847.

Sources for DASH Questionnaire

Hudak P, Amadio PC, Bombardier C, and the Upper Extremity Collaborative Group. Development of an Upper Extremity Outcome Measure: The DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand). American Journal of Industrial Medicine 1996; 29:602-608.


Marx RG, Bombardier C, Hogg-Johnson S, Wright JG. Clinimetric and psychometric strategies for development of a health measurement scale. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 1999; 52(2):105-11.


Beaton DE, Davis AM, Hudak P, McConnell S.  The DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) outcome measure: What do we know about it now? British Journal of Hand Therapy 2001a; 6(4):109-118


Beaton DE, Eerd D, Smith P, van der Velde G, Cullen K Kennedy CA, Hogg-Johnson S. Minimal change is sensitive, less specific, to recovery: A diagnostic testing approach to interpretability. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2011; 64(5):487-496.


Kennedy CA, Beaton DE, Solway S, McConnell S, Bombardier C. Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH). The DASH and QuickDASH Outcome Measure User’s Manual, Third Edition. Toronto, Ontario: Institute for Work & Health, 2011.


Beaton DE, Wright JG, Katz JN, and the Upper Extremity Collaborative Group. Development of the QuickDASH: Comparison of three item-reduction approaches. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 2005a; 87A(5):1038-1046.


Hunsaker FG, Cioffi DA, Amadio PC, Wright JG, Caughlin B. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Outcomes Instruments – Normative Values from the General Population. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 2002; 84-A(2):208-215.